In the non-sarcoma type, it is important to note that the cancer has not yet invaded the lymph nodes. Thus, if the cancer has been in the blood for many years as a result of another type of cancer spreading to the lymph nodes, the cancer can be detected when there is an increase in lymph node activity. This usually is detectable by ultrasound and biopsy. What is the treatment for each type of tumor?
A bone marrow transplant is usually performed if there is a chance of survival at all. The bone marrow is used to replace the tissue missing from the tumor. The marrow can be taken directly from the marrow of a donor, or from the nitrofurantoin monohydrate of an infant, or from a bone marrow-transplant recipient. Bone marrow transplants are usually not needed in children and older adults. If the patient is healthy and nitrofurantoin monohydrate not received chemotherapy or radiation treatment during the time the bone marrow is transplanted, the new marrow is not needed. Sometimes a bone marrow transplant is needed to correct malignancies that occur during the first few months of life, such as those that affect the lungs, liver or kidneys.
When there is little chance of survival, bone marrow transplantation is performed. Thus by the end of cell division, chromosomes have been reduced to a few dozen, and each cell has only one telomere in each chromosome. The telomeres are thought to protect the genes in the chromosome from mutations and to promote cell division, but the mechanism for telomere-dependent maintenance has remained a mystery.
A few years ago, I was approached by a woman, in her late 20's, in whom I had some concern about the long-term impact of her long-term telomere shortening. As I was trying to figure out the implications of her results, there came a point where the woman, after listening carefully to my comments, made it clear that the telomeres and the telomerase enzyme, the cellular protein that maintains the cells' telomeres, were the same thing. What she had done was to increase telomerase activity so that the telomere length went up; the telomeric protein in her cells was the same telomeric protein in the cells of the woman in my lab who had been dying.